Egypt Table of Contents Ironically, in Egypt found itself heavily indebted as it had been more than a century previously. The practice of external borrowing began with Muhammad Ali, who sought funds to finance, among other things, his ambitious development schemes. Significant debt began to build up only in the second half of the nineteenth century, coinciding with the rise of the export economy.
Geography White Desert, Farafra. The northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern coast borders the Red Sea.
Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: A transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, which in turn is traversed by a navigable waterway the Suez Canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea.
It is comparable in size to Tanzaniatwice the size of Franceand is more than half the size of the U. Nevertheless, due to the aridity of Egypt's climate, population centers are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that approximately 99 percent of the population uses only about 5.
Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is a big, sandy desert. The winds blowing can create sand dunes over one hundred feet high.
Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert. These deserts were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt, and they protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats. Climate Egypt receives the least rainfall of any country in the world.
South of Cairorainfall averages only around 0. On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as 7 inches mmall between November and March. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of its middle and coastal cities.
Egypt relies on the Nile River for water. A steady wind from the northwest helps hold down the temperature near the Mediterranean coast. History Satellite image of Egypt, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library The Nile Valley has been a site of continuous human habitation since at least the Paleolithic era.
Evidence of this appears in the form of artifacts and rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in the desert oases. In the tenth millennium B. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.
By about B. During the Neolithicseveral predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt, remaining somewhat culturally separate but maintaining frequent contact through trade.
A unified kingdom was founded c. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinct in its religion, arts, language, and customs.
The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period c. The Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza, built during the Old Kingdom, are modern national icons that also lie at the heart of Egypt's thriving tourism industry. The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about years.
Stronger Nile floods and stabilization of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around B.
They were eventually driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes. The New Kingdom c. The first known self-conscious expression of monotheism came during this period in the form of Atenism.
Frequent contacts with other nations brought in new ideas during the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded by Libyans, Nubians, and Assyrians, but native Egyptians drove them out and regained control of their country.
First built in the third or fourth century C. Foreign rule The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians in B. Later, Egypt fell to the Greeks and Romans, beginning over two thousand years of foreign rule.
Before Egypt became part of the Byzantine realm, Christianity had been brought by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the first century. Diocletian's reign marks the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted.
Governments in various countries, irrespective of the country׳s level of economic growth, seek to initiate macroeconomic policies towards achieving better economic performance in order to advance level of business activities and ultimately, ensure better quality of life for the people. Egypt's Three Challenges. The country's future will be decided by the resolution of its legitimacy crisis, its economic crisis and its Nile crisis. Robins' history of women in ancient Egypt is fantastic for Egyptologists and those interested in women's history especially, but even for the lay reader it is a veritable treasure trove of information.
The New Testament was by then translated into Egyptian, and after the Council of Chalcedon ina distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established. The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the seventh century, until Egypt was invaded inby the Muslim Arabs.Jul 10, · Egypt unrest: Ramadan begins and the military asks for trust.
The context can be confusing to outsiders. So here are eight issues about which Egyptians are upset. ElBaradei: Morsy's ouster was needed so Egypt cannot 'fail' If you are reading this on mobile or some outdated browser, you won't be able to see this story in full.
Click here . Economic Challenges Facing Egypt’s Next President Mohammed Samhouri To be successful, Egypt’s next administration must address macroeconomic instability while also pursuing policies to decrease poverty and unemployment.
But now, Egypt’s post-Islamist government is facing a remarkably similar situation. Beset by worsening economic conditions and rising discontent among the country’s youth, the Egyptian regime, now headed by Sisi, is decidedly on the skids—with potentially dire consequences for the country, and the region as a whole.
Foreign relations of the Arab Republic of Egypt are the Egyptian government's external relations with the outside world. Egypt's foreign policy operates along a non-aligned level. Factors such as population size, historical events, military strength, diplomatic expertise and a strategic geographical position give Egypt extensive political influence in the Middle East, Africa, and within the.
Egypt’s tragedy lies not just in the unwillingness of the military to allow for a peaceful transfer of power to a democratically elected government.
Egypt’s Biggest Problem Is Economic | Cato. Introduction. The media is doing a more than adequate job of covering the futile dance between the Eurozone “leaders” and Greece.
But Greece is not the only country facing fundamental economic .