ENG - College Writing 4 In this course, students acquire the writing competence necessary for conducting and presenting research. A variety of assignments, beginning with personal reflections, build upon one another, as students develop ideas that respond to, critique, and synthesize the positions of others.
While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks.
Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as "The Big Five" personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills. Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes.
Do not distinguish between the leadership attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences. Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership.
Attribute pattern approach[ edit ] Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach. Behavioral and style theories[ edit ] Main article: Managerial grid model In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.
To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision makingpraise and criticism feedbackand the management of the group tasks project management according to three styles: They were able to narrow their findings to two identifiable distinctions  The first dimension was identified as "Initiating Structure", which described how a leader clearly and accurately communicates with their followers, defines goals, and determine how tasks are performed.
These are considered "task oriented" behaviors The second dimension is "Consideration", which indicates the leader's ability to build an interpersonal relationship with their followers, to establish a form of mutual trust. These are considered "social oriented" behaviors. Although they similar findings as the Ohio State studies, they did contribute an additional behavior identified in leaders.
This was participative behavior; allowing the followers to participate in group decision making and encouraged subordinate input.
Another term used to describe this is "Servant Leadership", which entails the leader to reject a more controlling type of leadership and allow more personal interaction between themselves and their subordinates. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in and suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.
Skinner is the father of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future.
Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee.
This employee does not show up to work on time every day. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time. As a result, the employee comes to work on time more often because the employee likes to be praised.
In this example, praise the stimulus is a positive reinforcer for this employee because the employee arrives at work on time the behavior more frequently after being praised for showing up to work on time.
The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attain desired behaviors from subordinates.
Additionally, many reinforcement techniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive, providing higher performance for lower costs. Situational and contingency theories[ edit ] Main articles: Fiedler contingency modelVroom—Yetton decision modelpath—goal theoryand situational leadership theory Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership.
Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested. Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx said that the times produce the person and not the other way around.
According to the theory, "what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions. Building upon the research of Lewin et al.
The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the "hearts and minds" of followers in day-to-day management; the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated for the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not "take charge", they can be perceived as a failure in protracted or thorny organizational problems.
Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, the path-goal theory, and the Hersey-Blanchard situational theory. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency.
This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability later called situational control.
The theory defined two types of leader: Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. When there is a good leader-member relation, a highly structured task, and high leader position power, the situation is considered a "favorable situation".
Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability. Victor Vroomin collaboration with Phillip Yetton  and later with Arthur Jago developed a taxonomy for describing leadership situations, which was used in a normative decision model where leadership styles were connected to situational variables, defining which approach was more suitable to which situation.This study was motivated by the premise that no nation grows further than the quality of its educational leaders.
The purpose of this theoretical debate is to examine the wider context of leadership and its effectiveness towards improving school management. This academic evaluation examines recent theoretical developments in the study of educational leadership in school management.
Janet Bingham, PhD, is the president of the George Mason University Foundation and vice president for University Advancement and Alumni Relations..
Previously, she served as president and CEO of the Huntsman Cancer Foundation, a charitable organization that provides financial support to . Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
 Specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also (within the West) United States versus European approaches.
Strategic Leadership Competencies (), by Wong et al, Strategic Studies Institute (SSI), Sep Moral Reasoning as a Strategic Leader Competency (), by Martin Cook, Professor of Ethics, US Army War College Leadership Behaviors at Air War College, ACSC research paper, a study of leadership behaviors needed at the strategic level in the Air Force.
MGT 08/06/ Leadership Paper: Nelson Mandela This paper will give an analysis of a leader that I admire Nelson Mandela. It will cover the strong Prophecy, inspiration, compassion, innovative, persistence and ethical qualities of Nelson Mandela.
Delegate. Meet deadlines. Both are at the core of management and leadership. Yet true business success relies on more than a workhorse mentality -- it requires competent, talented, knowledgeable and fulfilled employees.